Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Amanuensis Monday -1787 North Carolina Land Record for Abel Lanham

State of North Carolina
Know ye that we have given and granted unto Abel Lanham a tract of land containing two hundred acres lying and being in our County of Green lying on Bent Creek the waters of the Nolychucky [sic] River. Beginning at a stake on William Rupert’s line thence North one hundred and one poles[1] to a white oak thence West two hundred and sixty poles to a stake on John [?] Alan’s line, thence South one hundred and forty six poles to the Beginning. To hold to the said Abel Lanham his heirs and assigns forever. Dated the 20th September 1787.

[1] A pole was the British term for a linear or square rod.  A linear rod was 5.50 yards (16.5 feet).

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

Friday Fathers - Abel Lanham: From “Traitor” to Hero—An American Life (1762-1838)

Just so that you will not be alarmed by the title, let me say upfront that Abel Lanham was not a traitor to the patriot cause in the Revolutionary War, but we will get to the accusation anon.

Abel was the great-grandson of John Lanham (1661-1745), who had come to America from Wortham, England, in 1679.[i] He paid for his transportation by signing an indenture that bound him for five years to Col. Benjamin Rozier of Charles County, Maryland.[ii]  In Maryland in 1679, John married a woman named Dorothy (debate continues regarding her surname, either Shaw or Burch[iii]), and their son William Lanham was the grandfather of Abel Lanham.  The family lived in Prince George’s County, Maryland, for more than sixty years.  
Sample Indenture

Then William’s son John Lanham, father of Abel Lanham, moved from Prince George’s County (formerly Charles County), Maryland, to North Carolina, where his marriage to Comfort Brown was recorded in 1742.[iv]  John and Comfort were the parents of six children, the youngest being Abel Lanham, who was born in Mecklenburg County in 1762.

Eighteenth-century records, which present the name variously as both Lanham and Langham, show land grants to Abel’s father in both Anson and Mecklenburg Counties.  Interestingly, one of his Mecklenburg properties was a land grant for 150 acres on the Millstone Branch of Fishing Creek, near the property of Peter Kuykendal, whose daughter Jean became Abel Lanham’s wife on December 3, 1777.[v]  The Kuykendalls had been in the colonies since 1646, arriving from Holland and living first in New Netherland, later to become New York.  At the time of their marriage, both Abel and Jean were fifteen years old.

Much is known about Abel’s service in the Revolutionary War since he provided a narrative of  his military service in February 1837, when he applied for a veteran’s pension.  Perhaps it is better to let Abel tell his own story, presented here with its original spelling, punctuation, and capitalization:
First Broad River and Second Broad River can be seen
in the upper left corner of the map.
“I entered the service of the United States the 1st of March 1778, as a volunteer, and as a private, under the command of Captain Kerkendall [sic], in the Regiment of William Grimes in Rutherford County in the State of North Carolina.  We rendezvoused on a creek called Sandy run.  My Captain and company were detached from the Regiment and ordered to go in quest of outlying Tories.  We crossed 1st and 2nd broad rivers to the frontiers of the State for the purpose of intercepting men who were in the habit of doing mischief, and then fleeing to the mountains.  We also kept in awe [dread], such men as were inclined to harbour bad men.  We marched from place to place as necessity required, and kept the disaffected citizens from collecting together.  We took ten tories in our rout, and delivered them over to Col. [William] Grimes, who commanded our Regiment.  We were kept in the service scouting about from place to place until the last of May, when we were discharged by Col. Grimes; having been in the service three months.
“On the 1st of March 1779 I volunteered my service again as a private in the service of the United States, in Rutherford County State of North Carolina under the command of the said Captain Kerkendall, and Col. Grimes, we met at a place called the Cross roads, I was marched from there to the frontier settlements, to a fort called McFadden [near Rutherfordton], where we were stationed for three months for the purpose of protecting the citizens engaged in cultivating their farms.  We were engaged while there in marching about, sometimes across the Blue ridge, and in the [?] mountains, guarding the passes through which it was thought the Indians would attempt to pass into the settlement and then returned to our Fort.  We were discharged the first of June 1779, and returned home.
Blue Ridge Mountains

“From North Carolina I, the said Abel Lanham, went into South Carolina, on a visit to my sister, and whilst there I volunteered again as a private on the first of September 1781, in Orangeburg District under the Command of Captain [William] Young, my Colonel’s name I cannot now recollect, and joined Col. or General Sumpter at Orangeburg Court house.  Sumpter lay at Orangeburg Courthouse three months, during which time we had to subsist chiefly by foraging.  Whilst here we did nothing of importance and during this time [General Anthony] Wayne came on there on his way to Georgia. I was again discharged the first of February 1782.  I then went to Washington County, North Carolina (now Tennessee).  The first of September 1782, I volunteered again, in sd. County under the Command of Captain Samuel Ware, in the Regiment of Col. John Sevier, as a private.  This service I performed as a horseman.  We were marched against the Cherokee nation of Indians.  We started from the Big Island on French Broad river, and marched to Tennessee river, and crossed the same at an Indian Town called Chota—from there to Hiwasee river, passed Bulls town and crossed Cooses river to an Indian Town called Estanolee, from there to little shoemaker plains and from there to old Hiwasee Town [Hiwasee Old Town].  In this campaign we destroyed the Indian crops and fourteen towns and returned home December 1st 1782, when I was discharged. This was my last service as a soldier.”
Henry Timberlake's map of the Cherokee country, 1765, showing
Chote about mid-way in the S-curve.

Now let’s examine the bogus charge of treason.  On July 8, 1782, Abel Lanham and 110 other men were charged in Rutherford County, North Carolina, of having aided the king of England on October 1, 1780.  Specifically, the charge stated that these men “with force & Arms in the County aforesaid Wickedly & treacherously entending and Designing as far as in them lay to Overturn the present free Government of this State & reduce the inhabitants thereof Under the Power of the Army of Great Britain then & now at Open War with this State and the United States of America did then & there with force and Arms feloinously [sic] & treacherously Knowingly & Willfully did aid & assist the said King by Joining his Army Commanded by Major [Patrick] Ferguson and by bearing Arms in the Service of the said King Against the Good Government Peace and Dignity of this State.”[vi] 

Now, it is true that Major Ferguson was sweeping through the Carolinas to enlist loyalists to fight with him.  It is also true that on October 7, 1780, just six days after the alleged treachery of Abel Lanham and others, Ferguson was killed at the Battle of King’s Mountain.  It is interesting to note that one of the commanders of the American patriots at King’s Mountain was Col. John Sevier.[vii]  It is highly unlikely that a man who had been with Ferguson at King’s Mountain fighting against John Sevier would be fighting with him in September 1782—just two months after the charges of treachery were brought!  And a man who had been fighting with the patriots since 1777, at that!

Certainly the new government of the United States never brought charges against Lanham, and when he applied for a pension in 1837, it was granted in the amount of $20 per annum.  What’s more, his second wife, Sarah Nunn Lanham, was granted a widow’s pension in the same amount in 1840, retroactive to 1838, the date of Abel Lanham’s death.  At least one other person on the list of the accused has also been vindicated, Freeman Jones, who was also granted a pension after the war.[viii]

One might wonder why such serious, yet unsubstantiated, claims could be made, and in that context we have to look at what happened to loyalists.  Some escaped to Canada.  Some were tortured. Some were hanged.   But in all cases their lands were confiscated and sold, with the profit going toward the war effort.  Therefore, it was a temptation to unscrupulous neighbors to make false accusations and scoop up the land when it became available. 
A Tory under arrest by patriots

After the war, white settlers began to move westward and treaties were made with the Cherokee to establish what might be called “zones” of ethnic communities.  Tennessee would not become a state until 1796, but change was coming on as North Carolina started ceding land to the federal government.  Abel Lanham’s name emerges next in August 1795 when 600 acres in what would become Grainger County, Tennessee, were surveyed for him and another man, Alexander Martin.
Cherokee Territory, 1804

The dates of birth for the children of Abel and Jean are all post-war.  The first, Elizabeth, is reported by some researchers as having been born in Camden District, South Carolina and by others, Lee County, Virginia, but all agree her birth date was 4 March 1780.  This date was between Abel’s second and third deployment, and the war was still raging.   The second child, Robert, born 1786, did not survive, but most researchers locate his birthplace in Claiborne County, Tennessee.  The third child, Solomon, born 1 January 1788, identified his birthplace as Tennessee (or what ultimately became Tennessee) in the census record of 1850,[ix] so this puts us on firm ground as saying that after the war, Abel and Jean were among those who moved somewhat to the west of their childhood homes and settled in the Claiborne County area, where members of the family still reside today.

From 1784, when the 600 acres were surveyed for Lanham and Martin, until November 1837, Abel Lanham is on record both buying and selling land in not only Claiborne County, but Greene and Grainger Counties as well.[x]  In addition, he was active in the community.  For example, in about 1802, he was one of the commissioners selected to locate the seat of justice and lay out the town of Tazewell, Tennessee, where the first house was erected in 1803.  From 1810 to 1814, he served as a trustee for the county administration.[xi] 

Statue of Col. John
On 20 June 1797, Lanham was commissioned by John Sevier as a lieutenant in the regiment of Grainger County.  Sevier, under whom Lanham had served during the campaign against the Cherokee during the Revolution, was at that time governor of Tennessee.  Two years later, Sevier named Lanham justice of the peace for Grainger County.[xii]

Jean Kuykendall Lanham died 29 August 1810 at the age of forty-eight and was buried in the Lanham cemetery near Tazewell.  Between 1780 and 1808, Jean had borne thirteen children. On September 6, 1818, Abel married his second wife, Sarah Nun (Nunn), and from that union, eight children were born.

It is hard to say what caused Abel to fall on hard times in 1837 to such a degree that he sought a veteran’s pension for the first time.  In his statement given at the Claiborne County Court in August of that year, Abel stated that “he would have applied sooner, but he was then in independent circumstances, and was, as he thought, able to live comfortably without assistance from the government; he further states that he never intended applying for a pension whilst in affluence, but that misfortunes have of late come upon him and he has been forced to part with his property and is now reduced to want.”[xiii] 
Abel Lanham's Will
p. 1

On 3 July 1838, Abel Lanham wrote his will.  The heart of the will reads, thus, with its original conventions of language:

“I give and bequeath to Sarah my dearly beloved wife all and singular the remainder of my land and movable estate to be applied to raising my dear children or so much of my said estate as may be left after all my Just debts are well and truely paid. At the death of my wife Sarah if there be any property left it is my will that [it] be sold for cash and equally divided between my last children.  Likewise Sarah Lanham my beloved wife whom I constitute make and ordain my sole Exutrix of this my last will and testament.”[xiv]  He died about eight weeks later on 22 August 1838 and was buried beside his first wife, Jean, in the Lanham cemetery near Tazewell.
Graves of Jean Kuykendall Lanham (left)
and Abel Lanham (right)

But that is not the end of the story.  In 1974, Zella Armstrong published a book entitled Some Tennessee Heroes of the Revolution, based on the government’s Revolutionary War pension records.  On pages 20-21, she recounts the narrative that Abel himself provided in 1837, which appears above.[xv]  Then on 12 November 2005, 167 years after his passing, the people of Claiborne County, a place carved from the wilderness by Abel Lanham himself, was honored by the dedication of his grave.  Under the auspices of the Bonny Kate Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution and the General Joseph Martin Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution, forty to fifty people gathered by that simple countryside grave for the ceremony, which followed this program: 

Trumpet call by the Reverend Samuel Johnson

Presentation of Colors by Rutledge High School

Welcome by Patricia F. Hunter of the DAR

Invocation by June Burnett, DAR Chaplain

Pledge of Allegiance by Todd Williams of the SAR

Posting of the Colors by JROTC of Rutledge High School

Presentation of certificates by Virgil Herrell, Claiborne County Mayor

Historical narrative by Ollie Ellison of the DAR

Tribute in honor of Abel Lanham by Chuck Minton, great-grandson
Headstone of Abel Lanham,
Lanham Cemetery, Tazewell, Tennessee

In his tribute, Minton said, in part, “We are gathered here today in honor of an individual who believed, as most colonists of the 13 colonies did, in a dream to be free of tyranny. At the age of 16, the man who lies here in this cromlech took up arms to defend this dream. This dream is now called America. . . . From his youth to his death, Abel Lanham witnessed the birth of the United States and ultimately the birth of a county known by the name of Claiborne County.  This country and this county will always remember you, Abel Lanham, for a job well done.”[xvi] 

And so endures the memory of Abel Lanham, a man once falsely accused of treachery but now remembered and honored as an American hero.  It is the stuff of dreams and well illustrated by this American life.

[i]  U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s.  Maryland, Year: 1679. 281. Ancestry.com.  Provo, UT, USA. 2010. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.

[ii] Charles Co. Ejectment papers: Rozier, Henry; MSA Maryland patent libers 16:71 and WC #2:130. Cited in Oran Stroud Lanham. “The John Lanham Family 1661.” Rev. ed. Clifford W. Lanham and Kevin W. Lanham, eds.  1.3.5. 2012. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

[iii] Lanham, Howard G. “Controversies in Lanham Genealogy.” Angelfire. n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

[iv] Yates Publishing. U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900. Ancestry.com. Provo, UT. Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004.

[v] Jeff Barefoot. “Records of the Lanham Family of North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky.” 1991. Available Ancestry.com.n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.

[vi] U.S., Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files, 1800-1900. Ancestry.com. Provo, UT: 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

[vii] Michael Toomey. “John Sevier (1745-1815).” North Carolina History Project.  John Locke Foundation. 2015. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

[viii] Doris Froehmer. “Re: Freeman Jones Sr.-1782 Rutherford Co. Court of Pleas & Quarter.” To Jones-Freeman-L Archives. Rootsweb. Ancestry.com. 28 Apr. 2002. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.  

[ix] 1850 United States Federal Census. Provo, UT:2009.  Ancestry.com Operations. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.

[x] Barefoot.

[xi] Barefoot.

[xii] “The Lanham Cemetery.” Claiborne County Cemeteries.  Rootsweb.  Ancestry.com. n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.

[xiii] U.S. Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files, 1800-1900. Images 522-23. InteractiveAncestry.com. Accessed 26 Oct. 2015.


[xv] Baltimore:Genealogical, 1975. 20-21. Ancestry.com. n.d. 27 Oct. 2015.

[xvi] “Dedication of Abel Lanham Grave.” Claiborne Progress. 17 Nov. 2005. Cited in Joe Paine. Webworks. JoePaine.org. n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

(c) Eileen Cunningham, 2015

Sunday, September 27, 2015

Amanuensis Monday: Will of Hugh Kilgore of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania (1715-1805)

Note: Spelling and punctuation have been modernized.  Also note that Tyrone township is now part of Perry County, PA, which was formed out of Cumberland County. 

Today's Perry County, PA, with today's
Cumberland County immediately south
(Source: Wikipedia)
Tyrone Township within Perry County
(Source: Wikipedia)

I,  Hugh Kilgore, of Tyrone Township, Cumberland County and State of Pennsylvania, farmer, being of sound and disposing memory and considering the uncertainty of this life do make this my testament and last will in manner and form following: I will, devise, and bequeath to my wife Jean the third part of my personal estate beside an exclusive of two cows, her bed and bed clothes, my roan mare, four yews, and the third of the flax, which I also bequeath to my wife Jean.  I will, devise, and bequeath to my daughter Rebecca one dollar.  I will, devise, and bequeath to my son David Kilgore one dollar.  I will, devise, and bequeath to my daughter Elizabeth Kelly sixty dollars.  I will, devise, and bequeath to my daughter Mary Kilgore twenty dollars.  I will, devise, and bequeath to my daughter Margaret [inserted above the line] Kilgore one third part of the residue of my personal estate, after the above legacies are deducted.  I will, devise, and bequeath to my son James Kilgore one third part of the residue of my personal estate equal to my daughter Margaret’s legacy, but if he keeps or claims the grey mare as his property, then eighty dollars is to be deducted from his legacy and to be equally divided between my daughters Margaret and Jean.  I will, devise, and bequeath to my daughter Jean Kilgore the remaining third part of my personal estate. The above legacies to be paid to the above legatees in proportion to their legacies as the money arising from the sale of my executors.  I will, order, and direct all my just debts and funeral expenses to be paid.  I will, constitute, and appoint my wife Jean and my nephew William McClure executors of this my last will and testament, and I do hereby revoke and disannull [sic] all former wills declaring this and no other to be my last will testament.  The witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this fifth day of April one thousand eight hundred and five.

Signed, dated, published, and declared by Hugh Kilgore the testator as his last will and testament in presence of us—Edward West, James Wilson.

Hugh Kilgore [seal]

Be it remembered that on the 23rd day of April AD 1805 the last will and testament of Hugh Kilgore (late of Tyrone township, dec’d) of which the foregoing record is a true copy was legally proven and letters testamentary with a copy of the will annexed issued the same day in common form to Jane [sic] Kilgore and William McClure executors within named.  Inventory and account to be exhibited in the register’s office in the Borough of Carlisle in the time appointed by law.
Witness my hand—
George Kline, Reg.

Source: Pennsylvania Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993. (Available on Ancestry.com)


Thursday, April 23, 2015

Military Monday - Dr. Charles Campbell Guard, Civil War Surgeon, and His Family

Dr. Charles Campbell Guard
Dr. Charles Campbell Guard was the great-grandson of Jeremiah Gard (1717-1783) of Morris County, New Jersey, whom many Gard researchers consider the “great granddaddy” of us all.  Charles was the oldest of the eight children of Chalon Guard (1797-1885) and his wife, Sarah “Sally” Campbell Guard (1799-1842).  He was born on August 5, 1824, a day after his father’s twenty-seventh birthday, in Equality, Illinois. 

On October 19, 1845, Charles married sixteen-year-old Lucy Ann White (parents unknown). The couple had two children.  The first, a girl named Julia A. (Ann, after her mother perhaps?), born in 1847, was still alive at age three as she appears in the 1850 census, but she does not seem to have survived to adulthood as she is not mentioned in the records after that.  The second, a girl named Lucy V., was born two years later in 1849.  Unfortunately, their mother, Lucy Ann, passed away on July 3 of the same year, suggesting complications from pregnancy.  So, at the age of 25, Charles Guard was left a widower with at least one infant girl to bring up. 

At some point in time, Charles Guard completed his education to become a doctor. Details as to where and when he received his education have not yet been uncovered, but at the age of 26, he is listed as a physician in the 1850 census when he was living in Saline County, Illinois, near Harrisburg.  In all other census records before and after 1850, he was in his native Gallatin County.

On March 12, 1851, Dr. Guard remarried to twenty-three-year-old Lucy Posey.  (Yes, the third Lucy in the narrative.)  The couple had two children: both boys.  The first was Birtis Guard (b. 1852).  I have been unable to find any information about a person with this (or a similar) name, so I fear that this is another child who did not survive.  Sadly, the second son, George P. (Posey?) Guard (b. 1853) is known to have died in infancy as well and is buried in the Equality Village Cemetery.  And then, two years later, Dr. Guard again made his sad way to the cemetery for the interment of his second wife.

Little Lucy V., now six, was again motherless.  But on September 13, 1857, Dr. Guard, now 33, married for the third time to 17-year-old Nancy “Nannie” Baker, who gave birth to a son, Chalon Timothy Guard, on July 21, 1858.  This was Dr. Guard’s fifth child and became the fourth to die in infancy.  On November 19, 1861, Nancy gave birth to another son, Charles Alexander, who, I am happy to report, survived to the age of 77, dying in the family’s hometown of Equality (Gallatin County) in 1938. 
Nancy "Nannie" Baker 

Though Charles and Nancy would return to Equality, the census year 1860 found them living near the town of Harrisburg in Saline County, Illinois.  Now, Saline County, newly formed in 1847, had originally been a part of Gallatin County.  The division of the county was controversial, and it had taken some time for the decision finally to be settled in court, with then Illinois attorney Abraham Lincoln having a role in the whole matter. 

Dr. Guard’s family was not the only Guard family in Saline County.  On the same page as the family of Charles Campbell Guard is the family of Charles’ half-brother, Chalon Guard (1853-1933).  The census reveals one other interesting fact.  Living with the Guards in Saline County were two ten-year-old African-American children, a girl named Anna and a boy named Albert Prater, who are listed as domestic servants.  The story of the status of blacks in pre-Civil War Illinois is an interesting one, which I hope to cover in a future narrative. Suffice it here to say that Dr. Guard seems to have been protecting these children from those in the state and the region who did not support their freedom.

Civil War Era Surgical Kit
By the time the war broke out, the Guards were back in Gallatin County.  In August 1861, Dr. Guard joined up with the 3rd Illinois Cavalry.  He was placed in Co. E. like others from Saline and Gallatin Counties, and was given the rank of 1st Lieutenant. However, when the unit moved out toward St. Louis on September 25, Charles was promoted to surgeon and transferred to the 29th Illinois Infantry (National; United States).

Almost immediately, the 29th reported to Cairo, Illinois, where Ulysses S. Grant, then a Brigadier-General, had recently been placed in command.  Grant’s assignment was to command the district of southeastern Missouri comprising all the territory in Missouri south of St. Louis and all of southern Illinois with permanent headquarters at Cairo. 

The map on the right, published in 1862, shows the position of Cairo at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.  Paducah, Kentucky, to the east of Cairo, can be seen on the Tennessee River, which was a tributary to the Ohio.  These waterways, which had previously been navigated for commerce, became central to troop deployment and support of what is now called the Army of the Tennessee.  For example, in November 1861, Grant, setting out from Cairo on the Mississippi, moved 3,000 men south on steamboats accompanied by two gun boats to an engagement against the Confederates at Belmont, Missouri.  Debarking three miles north of Belmont, they marched southward to engage Confederate Col. Jeff Thompson, whom they defeated (Wilson).  In this battle, the Union suffered the loss of 120 dead, 383 wounded, and 104 captured or missing.  The wounded would, of course, have looked to Dr. Guard and his assistants for treatment.

Since the army moved on the water, so did the surgeons, but at first their task was quite daunting.  During the operations against Fort Henry, Tennessee, February 2-6, 1862, moving the wounded out of the war zone was obviously slowed by the cumbersome process involved. Alan Hawk of the National Museum of Health and Medicine explains:

As the river campaign began from Cairo, Illinois, in February 1862, getting the sick out of the combat zone in preparation for the campaign turned out to [be] complex.  A surgeon needed [to] request the quartermaster’s corps to provide transportation for the sick.  These requests got low priority since the quartermasters tended to put their efforts on the movement of troops, weapons, ammunition and supplies (Hawk).

Eventually approval was received to charter steamboats specifically for transportation of the sick and wounded.  When they left Fort Henry, the medical transport system had improved somewhat as the vessel City of Memphis, with Dr. Guard aboard, left with 475 patients bound upriver for Paducah, Kentucky (Hawk).   

While the ship was moving northward to Paducah, the 29th Illinois was moving eastward by land to Fort Donelson, Tennessee, which is on the Cumberland River.  The Cumberland also passes through Paducah, which means that, upon debarking the wounded from Ft. Henry, the City of Memphis probably advanced via the Cumberland from Paducah to Fort Donelson, which was taken by the Union on February 16.  As the infantry continued eastward to Savannah, Tennessee, the City of Memphis and its sister ship the Louisiana continued to ferry the sick and wounded from ports in Tennessee to hospitals in Illinois, Ohio, and Missouri.  It is estimated they transported 10,000 men in this way between February and July (Hawk).
City of Memphis Hospital Ship

In March, Assistant Adjutant-General James H. Hammond sent a query to Captain John Rawlins suggesting that additional floating hospitals be assigned to the Savannah, Tennessee, region.  Hammond was writing from Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the Tennessee River just a few miles above Shiloh, where the famous Battle of Shiloh would soon take place.  At 4:00 p.m., General Sherman added a P.S. to Hammond’s letter, stating: “Have just read this letter, and approve all but floating hospitals; regimental surgeons [which would have included Dr. Guard] can take care of all sick, except chronic cases, which can always be sent down to Paducah” (Hammond).

This letter was dated March 18.  The 29th Illinois was at Pittsburg Landing at that time and remained there until March 25, at which time they began their move to the south. 
However, Dr. Charles Campbell Guard would not be there to help with the wounded from the Battle of Shiloh, which commenced on April 6, because, on April 4, he died of hepatitis aboard the City of Memphis, no doubt due to contact with contaminated blood during the course of his work.  Strangely, two sources indicate that Dr. Guard was at the Battle of Shiloh (“Charles Campbell Guard”[*]; Guard).  However, this cannot be true given the date of his death and that of the commencement of the battle.  It would probably be more accurate to say that the floating hospital on which Guard worked was nearing Shiloh when he died, but he could not have witnessed the fighting or cared for the wounded from the battle.

Dr. Guard’s body was returned to Equality, Illinois, in Gallatin County, for burial near the graves of his first two wives, Lucy White and Lucy Posey, and his infant son, George.  His living wife, Nannie Baker, now 23, and her 9-month-old son, as well as Lucy White’s daughter, Lucy V.,13,  were now without a husband and father. 
Equality Village Cemetery
Gallatin Co., Illinois

In 1864, Nannie remarried and appears with her son Charles Guard in the 1870 census, residing in Terra Haute, Indiana, with her second husband, Enoch Ross, and two Ross children, ages four and two.  But what happened to Lucy V.?

I was unable to find Lucy residing with any known relatives, and by the time of the next census in 1870, this 13-year-old girl would have been 21 and possibly married, though I was not able to discover a marriage record for her either.  Sadly, I discovered her on Findagrave.com, laid to rest at the age of 15 with no apparent family members beside her in Haven Hill Cemetery in the town of Olney, Richland County, Illinois, 70 miles to the east of Equality (“Lucy V. Guard”[†]).  But how did she end up there? 

Lucy V.’s mother died in 1849, and Dr. Guard did not re-marry until 1851.  The 1850 Census record shows him and his two daughters, Julia (age 3) and Lucy V. (age 1), residing with the family of Dr. Guard’s sister, Anne Valeria Guard Campbell, who was married to Judge John Lloyd Campbell.  

By the time of the 1860 census, Dr. Guard had remarried and Lucy V. was residing in Equality with her father and step-mother Nannie. (Julia does not appear.) But if Lucy died in Olney, how did she get there?  We cannot be sure, without further discoveries, when exactly Lucy V. made her way to Olney, but my guess is that she went there after her father’s death and burial.  After all, Nannie was not her own mother, and she did have other kin who cared for her.  It isn’t difficult to assume that her aunt, Anne Valeria, and her uncle, Judge John L. Campbell, with whom she had lived briefly in 1850, would have opened their home to this young orphaned girl.  This conjecture is strengthened by the fact that, according to the 1870 census, the couple were residing in Olney.

Realizing the importance of Anne Valeria in Lucy’s life, it is tempting to suppose that the V in Lucy’s name stands for Valeria, but that cannot be said with certainty.

The conjecture that Lucy lived with the Campbells after her father’s death is strengthened by a statement in a biographical sketch of John Lloyd Campbell, which appeared in the historical atlas of Richland County, Illinois, published in 1875, the year of John Lloyd Campbell’s death (Atlas).

In the paragraphs regarding Campbell’s marriage to Anne Valeria Guard, we learn several key facts.  One is that Anne Valeria moved to Richland County from Gallatin County during the war while John Campbell was serving in the Union Army (Co. E, 3rd Illinois Cavalry).  Why she moved during the war may be explained by the fact that there were numerous other Campbells in Olney, and, with four children, she may have been attracted to the support of her in-laws since both her own mother and her mother-in-law had died by then.

The second revelation in the biographical sketch is that the couple, in addition to their own children, raised ten orphans.  Given Lucy V.’s status as an orphan after April 1862, it is highly likely that she was one of the ten. The cause of her death is unknown. Sadly, none of Lucy’s blood kin rest with her in Haven Hill Cemetery, but her Uncle John was laid there upon his death October 9, 1875. 

Dr. Guard’s sister, Anne Valeria, eventually moved out to California with her son, John L. Campbell, Jr., who earned some fame as Superior Judge in San Bernardino County, where Anne Valeria died on February 18, 1893 (“Hon.” 534).  Charles Alexander Guard, the son of Dr. Guard and his third wife Nannie Baker, married Rachel Elizabeth Bourland in 1873 and had six children.  He ran the general store in Equality until his death in 1938. 

This sad tale of love and loss may be typical of the mid-nineteenth century, when infant mortality was high and the Civil War was tearing families asunder. Through it all, however, I see in Charles Campbell Guard a man who devoted his life to helping others and gave his own in service to the soldiers of the Army of the Tennessee.

(c) Eileen Cunningham, 2015

[*] The memorial has been updated with information I was able to provide as a result of this research.
[†] Ditto.

                                                              Works Cited

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Guard, Jim. “Dr. Charles Campbell Guard.” Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War. n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2015. http://suvcw.org/past/ccguard.htm  
Hammond, J[ames]. H. “To Captain [John] Rawlins.” 18 Mar. 1862. Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman. Son of the South. n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-battle-shiloh.htm
Hawk, Alan. “Hospital Ships in the American Civil War.” Academia. n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.  www.academia.edu/3302385/Hospital_Ships_in_the_American_Civil_War
“Hon. John Lloyd Campbell.” An Illustrated History of Southern California. Chicago: Lewis, 1890. Internet Archive. n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. https://archive.org/stream/illustratedhistofsc00lewi#page/n5/mode/2up
“John L. Campbell.” Historical Atlas of Richland Illinois. Brink & Co., 1875. Historic MapWorks. 2015.  Web. 21 Apr. 2015. http://www.historicmapworks.com/Atlas.php?cat=History&c=US&a=8858
“Lucy V. Guard.” Findagrave.com.  Memorial # 35545596. 5 Apr. 2009. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=35545596&ref=acom
National Archives and Records Administration. U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2000. Accessed 23 Apr. 2015.
United States. Registers of Deaths of Volunteers, 1861-1865 [database on-line]. Ancestry.com. 2012. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. 
Wilson, James Grant, and John Fiske, eds. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Rev. ed. 5.710. Internet Archive. n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. 

Charles Campbell Guard. Findagrave.com. Memorial #99965994.

City of Memphis Hospital Ship. National Museum of Health and Medicine. Creative Commons License 2.0 Generic. https://www.flickr.com/photos/medicalmuseum/3377151210/in/set-72157614294677868 

Equality Village Cemetery. Findagrave.com.

Map. “Position of New Madrid.” City-Data. http://www.city-data.com/forum/history/1156662-today-civil-war-30.html

Nancy “Nannie” Baker. Findagrave.com. Memorial #99966343.

Nineteenth-Century Girl. “18th- and 19th-Century Children’s Fashions!” Sally Hall.  Pinterest. Pinned from www.zoom.mfa.org.

Surgical kit, NCP 3913, National Museum of Health and Medicine.  Creative Commons License 2.0 Generic. https://www.flickr.com/photos/medicalmuseum/284967057/in/set-72157614294677868/